History

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The town of Sighet Marmaţiei (Sighet Maramures called in the past) is attested in 1326 and as a city in 1352. Capital for over six centuries of Maramures, Sighet city has vestiges of human Upper Palaeolithic (10,000 BC) , Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages; Solovan settlement on the hill in the Dacian period gives us the right to say that the city has been continuously inhabited human communities ancient times until today. Situated at the confluence of rivers and valleys, the city has polarized economic and trade Sighet Maramures area. The Castle on Solovan since the beginning of the Iron Age, one of the largest fortified settlements of Romania was subjected to attacks in metals mining context in the Maramures Mountains. Many traces of the free Dacians in the area (Onceşti, Călineşti) and archaeological finds of early feudalism archaeological city boundaries that certifies the existence of our ancestors fireplace Romans and then Romanian Dacian.

Since the mid- fourteenth century , Sighet became a flourishing center with the urban development and intensification of crafts and trade . Store and now testimonials documenting important guild of shoemakers in the city especially XVII – XIX.

A statistics show that in 1700 there were 14 guilds Sighet . The continuous development of the city lead to the granting of important privileges . 1611 Prince Bathory strengthens C. Sighet privileges , and in 1659 Emperor Leopold I granted the city the right Stamped : Bull Head ; Miron Costin is gradually noted that states that Sighet , Maramures capital , has the emblem Bull head , the coat of arms of Moldova . The similarity is uncertain whether Sighet was reminded that his followers Dragos Voda feud .

The oldest building remaining today is the Calvinist church (sec . XIV) , which is the tallest building in the city ( aprox.60m ) . Maramures County Building ( Prefecture Palace ) is the end sec . XVII ( 1691 to 1697 ) .

City officials and people gave special attention to education and culture, the city is a hotbed of irradiation throughout Maramures and neighboring areas. 16 feb. 1700 County Congregation decides that the school be maintained from public funds . The school is taught theology , philosophy , mathematics, Greek and Latin. As all sighetenii know Piarist School was established in 1730 under Emperor Charles VI.

Throughout history, along with Romanian town and the area settled Hungarian and German guests, Ukrainians century. XVIII, Hebrew and other populations. The city’s population has grown steadily, from 1,000 inhabitants in sec. XVI, in 2300-1778, 3495-1785, 5908-1840, 10852-1880, 21370-1910, 25800-1940 (just 13 013 inhabitants in ian.1945) 36,000 in 1976 to 41,730 in 2007. The city suffered the course of history and numerous disasters: destruction of Tatars in 1717, large fires (1802, 1853), earthquakes (1790, 1800) and cholera plague (1792, 1831 etc.). But life is recovering and reviving the city like the Phoenix from the ashes. Economic, social and cultural life of Sighet developed in Central Europe specifics of the modern age. It builds schools: if the first school attested in the city is cited in 1540 (Calvinist school) develops after religious reform Catholic education. In 1802 the school decker start building that takes its rank in 1859 after the establishment of higher education as 4-year college of law, functioning until 1918.

Romanian population , the majority in the area, and instructed the youngsters started Calvinist or Catholic schools . Opening politics after the revolution of 1848/1849 , county functions , including the Supreme Committee of Maramures Romanian owned , allowed the establishment of Sighet ” Association for the Culture of Maramures Romanian people ” , who in 1862 founded the Romanian . Romanian Institute gave in the 100 years of operation over a hundred and twenty teachers , who will prepare for carrying out the national consciousness .

In the late nineteenth century and early century. XX Sighet there are many economic and religious associations. Appear printing, editing newspapers and magazines are printed in the major languages ​​of the population works area (Romanians Hungarians, Jews, Germans, Ukrainians). Commissioning of the railroad connecting Sighetul Poland and Bukovina (1872) makes the Sighet an important commercial center. In operation using sawmill, furniture, and several banks. In 1893 in Sighet introduce electric street lighting, the city being the second city of Timisoara after those parties who benefit from the progress of modern economy.

At Sighet organizes conferences and exhibitions (1900, etc.) that highlight the progress in the area. Particularly take horizon Sciences. In Sighet two renowned academics were working on national and European level. Ioan Mihaly of Apşa (1844-1914), author of Maramures Diplomas from the XIV and XV (Sighet 1900), corresponding member of the Romanian Academy (1901) and Istvan Szilaghy member of the Academy in Budapest.

The First World War brought great influences city’s population and area , and can be accomplished Romania’s national unity . On 22 November 1918, Sighet ( the town square ) carried out a large national assembly of the Romanians from Maramures who choose National Council hereby sending delegations to the Great National Assembly in Alba Iulia on December 1, 1918 , which decided union with others Romanian provinces in Great Romania borders .

In 1919 open Sighet important Romanian schools : School ” Dragos Voda ” High School Girls’ Princess Ileana ” School for boys ” King Ferdinand ” , a gymnasium Trade Committee , a high trade boys high school trade girls. The Cultural Palace is established ” Ethnographic Museum of Maramures ” with important collections of objects , carpets, old books and manuscripts . (1926 )

At Sighet interwar over 20 newspapers appear “advice” (1918-1919), “Gazeta Maramures” (1920), “The language of Maramures” (1932-1940; 1947-1948) “Maramures” (1923-1926) “maramureshian Gazeta”, “Work” (bilingual newspaper). Appear numerous literary newspapers: “Our home,” He saw the blue “,” Cultural Thresholds, “” School life “etc.

Vienna Diktat (30 August 1940) and World War II brought immense suffering city’s population, especially, Jews and Ukrainians. Over 38,000 Hebrew in Maramures (Sighet 12,500) were deported to death camps and exterminated. I bear witness to this tragedy papers in Hebrew culture and civilization Museum, Elie Wiesel House, the Museum of Maramures, the Holocaust Monument on the former synagogue destroyed (1944) and Nobel Peace Laureate testimonies, Elie Wiesel. The end of World War II (1945) marked the return of refugees and attempts to restore the city.

Abolishing capital at Sighet Maramures County (1950 ) leads to the transformation of the city into a village without much importance in the Maramures region . Only the efforts of Sighet citizens and socio-economic development through industrialization enable economic growth in the city in the municipal heritage . It raises new residential areas .

Short history:

● 1326 first written attestation of Sighet Marmaţiei village;

● 1334 first clear mention of the city. It appears in papal documents;

● Catholic Vicariate in Sighet in 1346 in memory of papal documents;

● 1352 (19 Feb.) – Privileges granted in 1329 by city

Charles Robert of the four settlements “royal visitor” in Maramures

(Viscous Hust Teceu, Câmplung) extend to the Sighet

diploma on Louis King of Hungary;

● 1383 appears oldest emblem of Maramures;

The city of Sighet 1385 ● appears residence where emit Comitatens

documents;

● 1397 “Villa Our free … Zyget” … belongs to the family Drăgoşeştilor.

Salt is the main element of trade;

● 1472 town Matthias strengthens privileges;

● 1551 Sighet has the right to hold fairs;

● 1556 The Roman Catholic Church is taken Reform

most believers, now everything works and school

religious;

● 1700 (16 Feb.) County Congregation decides that reformed school

It is supported with public money;

● 1702 Leopold I reconfirm royal city status

● The existence of 14 guilds in 1706;

● 1711 Emperor Leopold granted the right city emblem (head

Bull-bison).

● 1717 last Tartar invasion, plunder their riches Sighet

Hidden Reformed Church (finally, Tatars were destroyed);

● 1730 appeared the first Piarists headed by Chrysostom to underpin

Catholic church building, and the school was Piarista

Romans frequented by students.

● 1773 Joseph II visiting the city;

● 1775 is inaugurated the new building of the school with 188 pupils Piarista

(now a museum).

● 1786 famine;

● 1816 on all public buildings have been displayed imperial insignia:

The eagle with two heads; Official language – German; Stationery language

and the congregation Comitatens – Latin;

● Opening kindergarten in 1845 the city;

● 13 December 1860 – Establishing “the Association for Romanian people

in Maramures ”

● 1862 begins work Preparandia Romanian (Institute

Teachers will give more than 120 Romanian teachers);

● 1867 is established “Reading Society of Romanians in

Maramures Dragoşiana ”

● City name written in 1877 for the first time Sighetu

Marmaţiei (Gazeta de Transilvania);

● John Mihaly prints Sighet 1900 the first volume of “History

Maramures County – Maramures Diplomas century. XIV – XV “-

which, in general for his work, will receive

Romanian Academy Award (1901);

● 1911 Open Sports Club Sectional football, shooting, wrestling and tennis

for the table;

● 1913-1914 takes place in Sighet, one of the most popular

the Austro-Hungarian empire. 94 Ukrainians were sentenced

for the transition to Orthodoxy. Their leader, Alexis

Cabaliuc (Ven. Alexis Carpathian) is held in prison for 4

years;

● 22 November 1918 – Romanian National Council is established – Dr.

Vasile Chindriş President, prof. I. Bennett secretary and Lt. Bilţiu

Florentin Bilţiu Bennett – Head of the National Guard – December 7th. appear

first Romanian newspaper “advice” 1919 organizing sports association

“Samson” Sectional football, boxing and athletics;

● During 1926 the National Congress of Teachers of geography

Romania was held in Sighet Ethnographic Museum opens

organized by G. Vornicu;

● 1938 opens a missionary Orthodox bishop;

● 1940 Vienna Award – Hungary Hortist built Maramures.

Also now appears “History of Maramures” Alexander Filipaşcu;

● 1945 temporarily, Maramures is incorporated Carpathian Ukraine

the diversion organized by Odoviciuc. Soon the

action Maramures peasants in villages ruled by priests

and teachers, in the diplomatic, Maramures re-enter the natural boundaries;

● 1945 established sports club “Tisa”

● 1948 nationalized factories, three printers and all banks;

● 1950 to prison in Sighet opponents are imprisoned youth

high school students, ministers, heads of government, historical party leaders, generals,

academics and culture, opposing the installation of communism

in Romania

● 1950 September 6 Maramures County resident is canceled

Sighet being built Baia Mare region, administrative system

imposed by the Soviet occupation. 1952 Completion of the track

Viseu-Salva;

● 1957 Sports School opens with a section of battles;

● 1960 began construction of blocks of city neighborhoods;

● 1967 the first foundations of popular theater;

● territorial reorganization in 1968;

● 1972 adopt a new emblem of the city;

● 1989 Revolution includes Sighet;

● 1989 appears first post-communist newspaper in Sighet (Marmaţiei Tribuna);

● 1996 Opening rail traffic to and localities Teresva

Rach (Ukraine);

● 1997 founded Taras Shevchenko Ukrainian high school;

● 2001 established Klara Leovey Hungarian high school;

● Connection to natural gas in 2006;

● 2007 Opening bridge and road border crossing point

Sighet-Solotvino.

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